Journal of Academic Research and Trends in Educational Sciences 2024-06-23T19:29:20+00:00 General Editor Open Journal Systems <p><strong>The</strong> <strong>Journal of Academic Research and Trends in Educational Sciences</strong> (<strong>JARTES</strong>) is a peer-reviewed scholarly online journal.</p> <p><br />There is no publication fee in the JARTES for international researchers. The JARTES is an international journal and welcomes any research papers on education and science using techniques from and applications in any technical knowledge domain: original theoretical works, literature reviews, research reports, social issues, psychological issues, curricula, learning environments, book reviews, and review articles. The articles should be original, unpublished, and not in consideration for publication elsewhere at the time of submission to the JARTES.</p> <p><br />Please consider that editor and reviewers invest significant time in the submission. Thus, the submission cannot be withdrawn without the approval of the editorial office during the review, the revision, the production after acceptance, or the publication process.</p> <p><br />The submission is first reviewed by the editorial team. This initial review is completed in one week. If the submission passes the initial review, then the blind review takes about two weeks. The template is not mandatory for articles submitted for review. The template can be used for accepted papers.</p> FACTORS INFLUENCING THE DEVELOPMENT OF NERVOUSNESS IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN 2024-06-09T20:53:53+00:00 Rodina Olga Aleksandrovna Risolat Anvarovna Salikhova <p>The article discusses the pressing issue of the causes of nervousness in children, the factors that influence the emotional and psychological health of children. The definition of the concept of “nervous children” is discussed. The types of dysfunctional families, situations that can arise in the family and their impact on the development of the emotional and personal sphere of children are considered.</p> 2024-06-09T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Rodina Olga Aleksandrovna, Risolat Anvarovna Salikhova ENERGY SAVING IN BUBBLE EVAPORATION PLANTS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF MINERAL FERTILIZERS 2024-06-16T16:58:23+00:00 Bexruz Mirzayusupov Alisher Shaislamov Dildora Badalova <p>This article explores strategies for enhancing energy efficiency in bubble evaporation plants used for the production of mineral fertilizers. The study examines the thermodynamic and operational principles of bubble evaporation technology, identifies key areas of energy consumption, and proposes methods to reduce energy usage while maintaining production quality and output. By implementing advanced heat recovery systems, optimizing process parameters, and utilizing energy-efficient equipment, significant energy savings can be achieved. The findings underscore the potential for energy conservation in the fertilizer industry, contributing to both cost reduction and environmental sustainability.</p> 2024-06-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Bexruz Mirzayusupov, Alisher Shaislamov, Dildora Badalova ENERGY INSPECTION OF THE HEATING SYSTEM 2024-06-16T16:48:24+00:00 Bekzod Solikhov Alisher Shaislamov Dildora Badalova <p>This article presents a comprehensive analysis of the energy inspection of heating systems, focusing on evaluating efficiency, identifying energy losses, and recommending improvements for optimal performance. The inspection process includes a detailed assessment of system components, energy consumption patterns, and thermal performance. By employing diagnostic tools and methodologies, the study identifies key areas where energy savings can be achieved. The findings highlight the importance of regular inspections and maintenance in enhancing system efficiency, reducing operational costs, and contributing to sustainable energy management practices.</p> 2024-06-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Bekzod Solikhov, Alisher Shaislamov, Dildora Badalova PREPARATION OF LECTURE NOTES ON THE DISCIPLINE HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER PROCESSES AND INSTALLATIONS 2024-06-14T18:28:04+00:00 Qaxxorbekova Ruxsora Badalov Abdumalik Olimov Sheroz <p>This article discusses the methodology and considerations involved in the preparation of comprehensive lecture notes for the discipline of heat and mass transfer processes and installations. Emphasizing clarity, coherence, and pedagogical effectiveness, the preparation process integrates fundamental theories, practical examples, and illustrative diagrams to enhance student understanding. The article addresses the structure, content selection, and instructional strategies essential for developing engaging and informative lecture materials that cater to diverse learning styles and educational objectives in engineering education.</p> 2024-06-14T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Qaxxorbekova Ruxsora , Badalov Abdumalik , Olimov Sheroz CALCULATION OF A HEAT EXCHANGER FOR HEATING AIR ON WATER TREATMENT UNITS (WPU) 2024-06-14T18:21:11+00:00 Raxmonberdiyeva Dilfuza Komiljonov Bobirmirzo Badalov Abdumalik <p>This article focuses on the calculation of a heat exchanger designed for heating air in water treatment units (WPU). Heating air is crucial for optimizing the performance of various processes within WPU, such as drying and thermal conditioning. The study outlines the thermal design considerations, including heat transfer calculations, fluid dynamics, and material selection, essential for efficient heat exchange between water and air. Practical insights and theoretical models are employed to demonstrate the methodology and parameters influencing the heat exchanger's performance in WPU applications.</p> 2024-06-14T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Raxmonberdiyeva Dilfuza, Komiljonov Bobirmirzo, Badalov Abdumalik IMPROVING THE ENERGY EFFICIENCY OF THE BUILDING OF SECONDARY SCHOOLS 2024-06-14T18:12:41+00:00 Saidov Bekzod Turgunbayev Shoxrux Tozabekova Guzal Badalov Abdumalik <p>This article explores strategies for improving the energy efficiency of secondary school buildings. Energy consumption in educational facilities is a significant concern due to its impact on operational costs and environmental sustainability. The study examines various approaches to enhance building performance, including the integration of renewable energy sources, energy-efficient technologies, and behavioral adjustments. Case studies and practical insights illustrate the effectiveness of these strategies in reducing energy consumption, lowering carbon footprints, and creating more comfortable learning environments.</p> 2024-06-14T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Saidov Bekzod, Turgunbayev Shoxrux , Tozabekova Guzal , Badalov Abdumalik DESIGN AND OPTIMIZATION OF A DRYING SYSTEM AND MILL FOR EFFICIENT PRODUCTION 2024-06-14T18:02:34+00:00 Xolmurodov Jahongir Yodgorov Salohiddin Badalov Abdumalik <p>This article explores the design and optimization of a drying system and mill aimed at enhancing production efficiency. The study addresses the challenges in traditional drying and milling processes, proposing innovative solutions to improve energy efficiency, product quality, and throughput. Key aspects include the integration of advanced drying technologies and the optimization of milling parameters to achieve higher yields and reduced environmental impact. Practical insights and experimental results highlight the benefits of the proposed system in industrial applications, demonstrating its potential to revolutionize drying and milling operations across various sectors.</p> 2024-06-14T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Xolmurodov Jahongir , Yodgorov Salohiddin , Badalov Abdumalik WAYS TO IMPROVE THE EFFICIENCY OF MORTGAGE LOANS IN COMMERCIAL BANKS 2024-06-09T21:15:37+00:00 Ravshanbek Abdullayev <p>The article examines how commercial banks offer loans to individuals. It provides practical suggestions and recommendations to address any issues in the lending practices of these banks..</p> 2024-06-09T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Ravshanbek Abdullayev BANK LOANS FOR SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES (IN THE EXAMPLE OF THE BANKING SYSTEM OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION) 2024-06-09T21:05:04+00:00 Shavkatjon Yo'ldoshev <p>The accessibility of external financing for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) largely depends on the development trends of banking systems across different countries and the willingness and capability of commercial banks to extend loans to creditworthy SMEs. This paper posits that, even in post-crisis times, smaller and medium-sized banks in Russia are more likely to provide loans to SMEs compared to larger banking institutions. Data analysis from Russian banks indicates that as banks grow in size and expand their activities, their lending to legal entities, including SMEs and individual entrepreneurs, becomes more intense. However, the proportion of loans given to SMEs and individual entrepreneurs within the total loan portfolio of legal entities tends to decrease.</p> 2024-06-09T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Shavkatjon Yo'ldoshev UTILIZATION OF SECONDARY ENERGY RESOURCES AT GAS PUMPING UNITS OF BOOSTER COMPRESSOR STATIONS OF THE MANAGEMENT FOR THE PROCESSING AND PRODUCTION OF BUTANE SULFATE (GPU BCS MPPBS) 2024-06-16T17:10:37+00:00 Umid Ibragimov Alisher Shaislamov Dildora Badalova <p>This article explores the utilization of secondary energy resources at gas pumping units (GPUs) of booster compressor stations (BCS) within the management for the processing and production of butane sulfate (MPPBS). The study examines the potential for recovering and repurposing waste energy generated during the compression process, with a focus on enhancing overall energy efficiency and reducing operational costs. Through the implementation of heat recovery systems, integration of cogeneration units, and optimization of process parameters, significant energy savings and environmental benefits can be achieved. The findings underscore the importance of sustainable practices in industrial operations and provide a framework for the effective utilization of secondary energy resources in the gas processing industry.</p> 2024-06-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Umid Ibragimov, Alisher Shaislamov, Dildora Badalova CURRENT STATE OF ACCOUNTING OF INCOME AND COSTS IN INSURANCE ORGANIZATIONS 2024-06-07T04:07:34+00:00 Dinara Kuvatova <p>The article explores the current state of accounting for income and costs in insurance organizations, emphasizing the unique challenges and requirements faced by the industry. It delves into the specific accounting practices adopted by insurance companies, highlighting the importance of accurate financial reporting for regulatory compliance and business sustainability. The study examines the impact of technological advancements, regulatory changes, and global financial standards on the accounting processes within the insurance sector. Through a comprehensive analysis, the article identifies key areas for improvement and suggests best practices to enhance the accuracy and efficiency of income and cost accounting in insurance organizations.</p> 2024-06-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Dinara Kuvatova MONITORING AND CONTROL SYSTEMS FOR INFORMATION SECURITY: ENHANCING CYBER DEFENSE 2024-06-06T05:07:16+00:00 Mardona Omonboyeva Nigora Normatova Odamboy Jabbarov <p>Monitoring and control systems are essential components of modern information security frameworks, providing real-time oversight and mitigation of potential cyber threats. This article explores the significance of monitoring and control systems in safeguarding digital assets, their key components, importance, challenges, and considerations. In today's digital age, where information is a valuable asset, protecting it from unauthorized access, misuse, and theft is paramount. As organizations increasingly rely on digital platforms to conduct business, the importance of robust information security measures cannot be overstated. Among the array of strategies and technologies available, monitoring and control systems play a crucial role in safeguarding sensitive data and ensuring the integrity of digital infrastructure.</p> 2024-06-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Mardona Omonboyeva, Nigora Normatova, Odamboy Jabbarov THE ROLE AND IMPORTANCE OF GOLDSMITHING AND EMBROIDERY IN NATIONAL CRAFTS IN SCHOOL CIRCLES 2024-06-04T20:40:30+00:00 Navbahor Eshinxo'jayeva <p>This article explores the role and importance of goldsmithing and embroidery in national crafts within school circles. These traditional crafts not only preserve cultural heritage but also provide students with practical skills and creative outlets. By integrating goldsmithing and embroidery into educational curricula, schools can foster a deeper appreciation for national craftsmanship and promote the development of fine motor skills, artistic expression, and cultural awareness among students. The study highlights various methods and benefits of teaching these crafts in school settings, including enhancing student engagement, promoting cultural identity, and supporting local economies through the continuation of traditional practices..</p> 2024-06-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Navbahor Eshinxo'jayeva PRESCHOOL EDUCATION IS THE KEY TO FUTURE SUCCESS 2024-06-04T20:23:02+00:00 Shahnoza Najmiddinova <p>This article is devoted to the content of the "Ilk qadam" state program, which was introduced to develop the preschool education system. Also, it will be discussed about the issues that must be addressed within the framework of this program.</p> 2024-06-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Shahnoza Najmiddinova WAYS TO ATTRACT FOREIGN CREDIT LINES AND INCREASE THEIR EFFECTIVENESS 2024-06-02T11:54:59+00:00 Saloxiddin Ismoilov <p>The importance of data and discussions concerning women's roles in the digital realm is growing within gender and digital economy studies. This paper delves into the intricate relationship of women's roles in the digital economy over the past two decades. The analysis was based on a review of literature from scientific research and official documents from international bodies. Available sources indicate notable progress in recent years, yet persistent challenges remain. Various samples were created, and trends over time were evaluated through quantitative analysis. The overall findings suggest that women's roles in the digital economy are becoming more significant and evident. The study's results support global expectations that advocate for women's roles in the digital economy (glass ceilings), where women occupy key positions (women on boards) and are involved in decision-making (glass cliffs). The regression econometric model demonstrates that women’s increasing significance in the digital economy is apparent through their extensive use of Internet networks (business, social), advanced digital skills, and presence as ICT experts. The paper concludes with several recommendations for the contemporary framework of the digital economy.</p> 2024-06-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Saloxiddin Ismoilov PARTICIPATION OF THE TURKISH PEOPLE IN THE ACTIVITIES OF THE MUSLIM BUREAU OF TURKESTAN 2024-05-31T09:30:33+00:00 R.A. Rasulova <p>The article describes the establishment of the Muslim Bureau in Turkestan and the participation of Turkic peoples in its sections. It is mentioned that the leadership was taken by the Tatars, and they even showed zeal in opening the Muslim Bureau in the regions, cities and uezds.</p> 2024-05-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 R.A. Rasulova PATHOPHYSIOLOGICAL STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF COLLAGEN ON THE GRANULATION PROCESS IN PURULENT WOUNDS 2024-05-30T05:20:39+00:00 Alisher Tashkarganovich Mominov <p>The results of treatment of 60 patients with purulent wounds of various origins and localization using a collagen sponge containing the bacteria Bacillus subtilis, alfalfa extract, and α-interferon were analyzed. The effectiveness of treatment was assessed by clinical, histological, cytological and bacteriological methods. The use of this method made it possible to accelerate wound healing and reduce the time of hospital treatment.</p> 2024-05-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Alisher Tashkarganovich Mominov RESULTS OF ARTHROSCOPIC DIAGNOSIS OF THE ANKLE JOINT 2024-05-29T17:37:27+00:00 Farrux Gafurov <p><strong><em>Objective</em></strong>: This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of arthroscopic diagnosis in identifying pathologies of the ankle joint. Arthroscopy has become a pivotal diagnostic and therapeutic tool in orthopedic practice, offering minimally invasive insights into joint health.</p> <p><strong><em>Methods</em></strong>: A retrospective analysis was conducted on 120 patients who underwent ankle arthroscopy over the past five years. Patient records were reviewed to document preoperative diagnoses, arthroscopic findings, and any subsequent treatments. The diagnostic accuracy of arthroscopy was compared against preoperative imaging techniques, such as MRI and CT scans.</p> <p><strong><em>Results</em></strong>: Arthroscopy revealed significant discrepancies between preoperative imaging and actual joint pathologies in 35% of cases. Commonly diagnosed conditions included synovitis, osteochondral lesions, ligamentous injuries, and impingement syndromes. Notably, arthroscopy detected intra-articular abnormalities not visible on imaging in 25% of patients. The procedure also facilitated immediate therapeutic interventions, such as debridement and synovectomy, in 60% of cases.</p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion</em></strong>: Arthroscopic diagnosis of the ankle joint provides a highly accurate and reliable method for identifying a wide range of pathologies. It not only surpasses the diagnostic capabilities of traditional imaging techniques but also allows for concurrent treatment, enhancing patient outcomes. Given its diagnostic precision and therapeutic potential, arthroscopy should be considered a standard approach in the evaluation of persistent or complex ankle joint disorders.</p> 2024-05-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Farrux Gafurov OPPORTUNITIES FOR USING ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE FOR MANAGING HUMAN RESOURCES IN THE CONTEXT OF THE DIGITAL ECONOMY 2024-06-19T21:07:50+00:00 Malika Khaydarova <p>This article examines the influence of artificial intelligence on human resource management within a market economy. The goal is to investigate contemporary trends in how AI is transforming HR management systems. The study reveals that AI offers both benefits and risks, prompting the need for modern economies to be prepared for digitalization challenges. This includes the ability to swiftly adapt by leveraging human creativity and enhancing the education sector and labor market. The successful deployment of AI depends on the clear definition of tasks; otherwise, it may fail to meet its objectives in uncertain conditions.</p> 2024-06-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Malika Khaydarova DEVELOPMENT OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SPORTS IN UZBEKISTAN TODAY 2024-06-23T19:29:20+00:00 A. Aspetullayev Yu. Sultamuratov <p>Comprehensive work is being done to ensure the future of our country and to realize all our noble goals of raising a highly moral, all-rounded generation.</p> 2024-06-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 A. Aspetullayev, Yu. Sultamuratov IMPROVEMENT OF THE STRUCTURE OF THE BELTING MECHANISM OF WEAVING MACHINES 2024-06-23T19:10:33+00:00 Makhliyo Khudаyberdiyeva <p>The article is related to textile engineering and related to the weaving mechanisms of weaving machines. The weaving mechanism of the weaving machine is hinged on a shaft mounted on the main shaft, a countershaft connected to it, and a three-shouldered lever attached to the shaft. The weaving mechanism is one of the main mechanisms in weaving.&nbsp; The rope acts as a waiting point when the yarn is cast off and the cast rope is glued to the edge of the fabric.</p> 2024-06-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Makhliyo Khudаyberdiyeva THE ROLE OF PSYCHOLOGICAL RESILIENCE IN MILITARY EDUCATION: STRATEGIES FOR EFFECTIVE TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT 2024-06-21T23:47:05+00:00 Javlon Sultonovich Kobilov Turgun Baxriddinovich Xafizov Ilhom Mamadaminovich Pulatov <p>This article examines the crucial role of psychological resilience in military education and explores strategies for its effective development through training programs. Psychological resilience is the capacity to cope with, recover from, and adapt to stress and adversity, which is essential for military personnel facing high-stress environments and challenging operational demands. The study analyzes various methods employed in military training to enhance resilience, including stress inoculation training, mindfulness practices, and peer support systems. By integrating these strategies into the curriculum, military education can better prepare service members to handle the psychological demands of their duties. The findings underscore the importance of a holistic approach to training that includes both physical and psychological components, ultimately leading to improved performance, well-being, and mission success.</p> 2024-06-21T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Javlon Sultonovich Kobilov, Turgun Baxriddinovich Xafizov, Ilhom Mamadaminovich Pulatov ADVANCEMENTS IN MILITARY PEDAGOGY: INTEGRATING TECHNOLOGY AND TRADITIONAL TRAINING METHODS 2024-06-21T23:32:44+00:00 Umid Nurullaevich Ernazarov Abdukaxxar Shamsievich Ziyadullaev <p>This article explores the recent advancements in military pedagogy, focusing on the integration of technology with traditional training methods. The dynamic nature of military operations necessitates continuous improvement in training approaches to prepare personnel effectively for diverse challenges. The study examines various technological innovations, such as virtual reality (VR), augmented reality (AR), and simulation-based training, and their applications in military education. These advancements are analyzed in conjunction with conventional training techniques to understand their combined impact on skill acquisition, retention, and operational readiness. The findings suggest that a hybrid approach, leveraging both technology and traditional methods, enhances the efficacy of military training programs, leading to better-prepared and adaptable service members. The article also discusses potential challenges and considerations for implementing these integrated training strategies.</p> 2024-06-21T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Umid Nurullaevich Ernazarov, Abdukaxxar Shamsievich Ziyadullaev STUDYING THE COMPOSITION, AGGREGATE STATES AND CYCLE OF WATER IN NATURE IN TEACHING CHEMISTRY 2024-06-21T17:20:34+00:00 Shaxlo Meliqulova <p>This article explores the pedagogical strategies and educational significance of studying the composition, aggregate states, and cycle of water in nature within the context of teaching chemistry. Water, as a fundamental component of Earth’s systems, plays a crucial role in various chemical processes and environmental phenomena. By understanding the molecular composition of water, its different states—solid, liquid, and gas—and its continuous cycle through the environment, students gain essential insights into broader chemical principles and environmental science. This study reviews effective teaching methodologies, including hands-on experiments, interactive simulations, and integrative cross-disciplinary approaches, to enhance students' comprehension and engagement. The findings highlight the importance of a comprehensive and experiential approach to teaching these topics, ultimately fostering a deeper appreciation of chemistry and environmental stewardship among students.</p> 2024-06-21T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Shaxlo Meliqulova USE OF INNOVATIVE EDUCATIONAL METHODS IN SOLVING PROBLEMS ABOUT SHARES AND SIMPLE FRACTIONS 2024-06-21T17:07:49+00:00 Jambibi Xudoyarova <p>This article explores the application of innovative educational methods in teaching and solving problems related to shares and simple fractions. Traditional approaches to teaching fractions often result in conceptual misunderstandings and mathematical anxiety among students. Innovative methods, including visual aids, interactive digital tools, and problem-based learning, offer alternative strategies that can enhance comprehension and engagement. By integrating these methods into the curriculum, educators can provide a more dynamic and supportive learning environment. This study reviews various innovative techniques, analyzes their effectiveness through case studies, and offers recommendations for their implementation. The findings suggest that these methods significantly improve students' understanding of fractions and their ability to solve related mathematical problems, ultimately fostering a more positive attitude towards mathematics.</p> 2024-06-21T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Jambibi Xudoyarova THE ROLE AND INFLUENCE OF TEXTILE FIBERS IN THE SEWING PROFESSION: THE EXAMPLE OF GENERAL EDUCATION TECHNOLOGY SCIENCE. 2024-06-21T16:20:47+00:00 Nilufar Annaqulova <p>This article examines the role and influence of textile fibers in the sewing profession, with a particular focus on their application in general education technology science. Textile fibers, both natural and synthetic, form the fundamental materials used in sewing and garment construction. Understanding their properties, such as strength, elasticity, and moisture absorption, is crucial for selecting the appropriate fiber for specific applications. This paper explores how the knowledge of textile fibers is integrated into the educational curriculum, impacting students' skills and competencies in the sewing profession. Through a comprehensive analysis, the study highlights the importance of textile education in fostering a deep understanding of material properties and their practical applications, ultimately enhancing the quality and efficiency of the sewing process.</p> 2024-06-21T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Nilufar Annaqulova THE ROLE OF COMMERCIAL BANKS IN ATTRACTING INVESTMENTS 2024-06-20T14:06:00+00:00 Zilola Pirnazarova <p>The article examines the importance of commercial banks for the economic development of the country, especially in the context of financing investment projects. In addition, an analysis of the country's GDP and the share of credit investments carried out by commercial banks is carried out. In addition, the work provides theoretical and scientific conclusions and recommendations on this topic.</p> 2024-06-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Zilola Pirnazarova SOCIAL CREDIT SYSTEM: THE INITIAL CONDITIONS AND THEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS OF THE HISTORICAL PHENOMENON 2024-05-29T16:48:31+00:00 Bahodir Sattorov <p>This article explores the doctrinal foundations and historical prerequisites of the "Social Credit System" (SCS), a project implemented in the People's Republic of China since the early 2000s and currently being "exported" to other countries. The study analyzes both specifically national, Chinese sources and the prerequisites for the formation of the modern social credit and control system, as well as external influences, particularly from the history of Western European political and legal thought and Western social institutions. By examining the Social Credit System as a technology for societal surveillance and control, the authors trace its roots to Jeremy Bentham's "Panopticon" project, Taylorist management philosophy, Confucian and Legalist traditions of imperial China, ideas and institutions from the Chinese Cultural Revolution, and American financial scoring systems. The research employs historical, systematic, comparative legal methods, deconstruction methods, and socio-philosophical and political analysis. The article incorporates the latest publications on the subject. It critically analyzes doctrinal sources such as works by J. Bentham, F. Taylor, and other authors. This study represents the first examination in domestic literature of the historical and doctrinal prerequisites of China's Social Credit System. It builds on the work of foreign scholars who have explored the history of the SCS. For the first time, Confucian ideas and Legalist school ideas are interpreted as complementary sources of the contemporary social control system deployed in China. The article details the process by which the Chinese leadership recognized the need for the SCS, analyzing the goals of this technology. As noted by the authors, the Chinese SCS and related control technologies form a unique "bridge" linking the "Western" development of social institutions with typically "Eastern" political and socio-cultural traditions. The conclusion highlights both the positive aspects of SCS implementation and the "shadow" side of this process, including its reverse and all associated challenges.</p> 2024-05-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Bahodir Sattorov MANAGEMENT AND DIVERSIFICATION OF THE LOAN PORTFOLIO IN COMMERCIAL BANKS 2024-06-19T09:00:33+00:00 Abbos Narzullayev <p>At a time when the interest in loans is increasing in the economy of Uzbekistan, the issue of analyzing credit risks and studying their role in the efficiency of banks is becoming more urgent. The results of the research show a non-linear growth of risks in bank lending related to the main attributes of lending: loan volume, term and interest rate. Creating an optimized risk-reducing approach to loan portfolio management is an urgent and practical issue. The purpose of this article is to confirm the need to increase the diversity of the loan portfolio and reduce risks, and to develop a new loan portfolio management system. This article used the statistical data of the Central Bank of the Republic of Uzbekistan and the Statistics Committee, referred to system analysis, theoretical approaches to management, statistical processing and operational research. The article presents a loan portfolio management method that combines quantitative and qualitative methods of risk assessment, which allows you to control the portfolio, as well as make informed decisions on granting or denying credit based on established risk limits. A portfolio structure optimization model has also been developed to achieve a better balance between short-term and long-term loans under different credit policies and to maximize portfolio profitability taking credit risk into account. The application of the proposed management mechanism and model in the activity of banks gave positive results in increasing the profitability and competitiveness of credit organizations.</p> 2024-06-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Abbos Narzullayev CLIENT-ORIENTED APPROACH TO COMMERCIAL BANK MANAGEMENT 2024-06-19T08:49:01+00:00 Malika Xazratova <p>The article notes that the intensification of competition in the banking services market, the standardization of products and services, as well as changing client requirements necessitate a reorientation of bank activities towards the needs and preferences of clients. The importance of a customer-oriented approach to managing a commercial bank is emphasized, and its main components are discussed: strategy, business processes, structure, information system, corporate culture, and performance metrics. It concludes that focusing the bank's efforts on creating client assets significantly enhances business profitability and increases its market value.</p> 2024-06-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Malika Xazratova IMPACT OF RETAIL BANKING SERVICES ON THE EFFICIENCY OF COMMERCIAL BANKS 2024-06-19T08:35:24+00:00 Fazliddin Fayziyev <p>This article examines the development of retail services in the banking system of Uzbekistan, its theoretical and practical aspects, as well as scientific suggestions and recommendations for the development of retail banking services.</p> 2024-06-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Fazliddin Fayziyev THE ROLE OF WOMEN AND GIRLS IN THE ERA OF DIGITALIZATION OF THE ECONOMY: PROBLEMS AND OPPORTUNITIES 2024-06-19T08:15:54+00:00 Nargiza Yunusova <p>The importance of data and discussions concerning women's roles in the digital realm is growing within gender and digital economy studies. This paper delves into the intricate relationship of women's roles in the digital economy over the past two decades. The analysis was based on a review of literature from scientific research and official documents from international bodies. Available sources indicate notable progress in recent years, yet persistent challenges remain. Various samples were created, and trends over time were evaluated through quantitative analysis. The overall findings suggest that women's roles in the digital economy are becoming more significant and evident. The study's results support global expectations that advocate for women's roles in the digital economy (glass ceilings), where women occupy key positions (women on boards) and are involved in decision-making (glass cliffs). The regression econometric model demonstrates that women’s increasing significance in the digital economy is apparent through their extensive use of Internet networks (business, social), advanced digital skills, and presence as ICT experts. The paper concludes with several recommendations for the contemporary framework of the digital economy.</p> 2024-06-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Nargiza Yunusova METHODS OF MANAGING AND SOLVING PROBLEM LOANS IN BANKS 2024-06-19T07:14:31+00:00 Abdullo Ostonov <p>During the 2007 financial crisis, many banks with a high incidence of non-performing loans (NPLs) encountered a cessation of their capital sources, largely due to poor management practices. Substantial amounts of NPLs indicate not only deficiencies in management methods but also a shortage of capital. Additionally, elevated NPL levels have adversely impacted bank lending activities, raising concerns among bank officers and managers about the future stability of the entire banking system. This study has a dual purpose: firstly, to present various NPL management methods documented in the literature, and secondly, to distinctly differentiate between post-crisis (ex-post) and preventive (ex-ante) NPL management. This paper consolidates recommendations from various researchers on effective strategies to manage and mitigate NPLs across different banking systems worldwide. The goal is that by evaluating these methods, banks will be better equipped to handle NPL issues.</p> 2024-06-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Abdullo Ostonov WAYS TO ATTRACT FOREIGN CREDIT LINES AND INCREASE THEIR EFFECTIVENESS 2024-06-19T07:02:46+00:00 Sitora Nasimova <p>The article analyzes the factors influencing the creation of a favorable business climate and the increase of investment attractiveness of Uzbekistan's economy for foreign direct investments, their development, and methods of attraction.</p> 2024-06-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Sitora Nasimova SYNONYMS IN A LITERARY TEXT (IN THE EXAMPLE OF TURA SULAYMON’S WORK) 2024-06-17T07:06:45+00:00 Khayrulla Ibragimov Mukaddas Turopova <p>The most important of the linguistic features of a literary text is that it includes emotionally colored words, dialect words, historical and archaic words, slang and slang words, figurative words, synonyms, forms, words with similar pronunciations and opposite meanings, as well as units such as phrases, proverbs and sayings are wide given. This article focuses on one of Tura Sulaymon’s main tools for ensuring the diversity of artistic discourse, the ability to use synonyms as an important means of expression in language.</p> 2024-06-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Khayrulla Ibragimov, Mukaddas Turopova FORMATION OF READING CULTURE OF PRIMARY SCHOOL STUDENTS AND USE OF INTERNATIONAL EXPERIENCES IN THIS REGARD 2024-06-16T17:27:57+00:00 Muazzamxon Mirzoxayitova <p>In this article, the formation of the reading culture of elementary school students and its benefits are discussed. In this regard, it is said that the use of international experiences is effective.</p> 2024-06-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Muazzamxon Mirzoxayitova SIGN MOVEMENT IN THE SEMIOTIC ANALYSIS OF THE PROSE TEXT 2024-04-25T16:28:48+00:00 Rayhonoy Saidova <p>In world literary studies, great attention is paid to the application of structural and semiotic research methods, which have been introduced since the middle of the 20th century, to the scientific research process. In particular, it is important to analyze the prose or lyrical works of a certain creator based on semiotic methods, to illuminate the signifier-knower relations within the sign structure, and to reveal the meaning of the artistic text from a semantic and structural point of view.</p> <p>In this article, the semiological system of the artistic text, the infinity of the text, the interrelationships of the signs are highlighted, the movement of the separated signs, denotative and connotative features, paradigmatic, syntagmatic and binary opposition relations of semiotics are analyzed.</p> 2024-04-25T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Rayhonoy Saidova CURRENT TRENDS OF THE FORMATION OF GLOBAL VALUE CHAINS AND FACTORS INFLUENCING THEIR DEVELOPMENT 2024-05-04T06:24:22+00:00 Rakhimova Farzona <p>The article provides a factor analysis of current trends in the formation of global value chains. In addition, the article identifies trends in changes in the dynamics of the share of GVCs in the world economy in sectoral and geographical terms.</p> 2024-05-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Rakhimova Farzona A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF UZBEK AND BRITISH FOLKLORE: EXPLORING THE CONCEPT OF “SUPERNATURAL” 2024-05-04T06:16:48+00:00 Pardayeva Diyora <p>This article defines the concept of “Supernatural” in Uzbek and British folklore by a comparative analysis of each country’s mythologies, cultural narratives and beliefs. The article explores the ways in which supernatural entities and events are portrayed in various traditions, and the cultural significance that they have, drawing from an extensive array of myths, stories and customs. There are some intriguing similarities between Uzbek and British folklore’s portrayal of the supernatural, despite from their differences in geography and culture, which reflect universal values of human experience and imagination. We can find out&nbsp; more about the continuing fascination with the supernatural&nbsp; and how it forms cultural identities and narratives in a variety of countries through studying these folkloric traditions. Furthermore, the combination of abstract-idealistic and realistic imagining of the world is another feature of folklore, which is considered one of the main parts of expressing the notion of&nbsp; “Supernatural”.</p> 2024-05-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Pardayeva Diyora EXPLORING THE FASCINATING WORLD OF BIOLOGICAL MATERIALS: NATURE'S BLUEPRINT FOR INNOVATION 2024-05-01T16:59:47+00:00 Xolboyeva Dilruzabegim <p>This article delves into the captivating realm of biological materials, elucidating their diverse properties, structures, and applications across various fields. Nature has long served as a source of inspiration for material scientists and engineers, offering a rich tapestry of biological materials with unique functionalities and remarkable performance. From the exquisite strength of spider silk to the self-healing capabilities of certain proteins, biological materials showcase the ingenuity of evolution and provide valuable insights for innovation in materials science and engineering. Through an exploration of key examples and recent advancements, this article sheds light on the profound impact of biological materials on technology, biomedicine, and sustainability.</p> 2024-05-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Xolboyeva Dilruzabegim SOME COMMENTS ON THE UZBEK NATIONAL DIALECTAL CORPUS 2024-05-01T12:05:58+00:00 Abdimo‘minova Shahzoda <p>In this article, we analyzed the stages of transition from theory to practice of Uzbek dialectology in a practical framework. Research conducted in this regard has been discontinued.</p> 2024-05-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Abdimo‘minova Shahzoda EXPLORING FORMAL AND INFORMAL CONDOLENCE EXPRESSIONS IN ENGLISH AND UZBEK LANGUAGES 2024-04-29T11:53:19+00:00 Hayitova Shahnoza <p>This article is devoted to the exploration of formal and informal condolence expressions in both English and Uzbek languages. The article reveals a cross-cultural comparison, examining how formal and informal communication methods are utilized in expressing condolences within English and Uzbek contexts, and their implications on language, culture, and social norms. The analysis encompasses a study of condolence letters by presidents and literary works., providing insights into the nuances of expressing condolences in both formal and informal setting across these languages. Having conducted the research, the following findings were revealed: (1) in formal English expressions of condolence the primary focus lies on conveying sympathy and offering comfort to the bereaved family. (2) officially condolence expressions in Uzbek language are characterized by a greater emphasis on acknowledging and amplifying the qualities and actions of the deceased individual. The practical implications of this study can be used to understand cultural differences in expressing condolences and enrich cross-cultural communication.</p> 2024-04-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Hayitova Shahnoza FACTORS THAT BREAK THE PURITY OF SPEECH 2024-04-29T11:38:40+00:00 Durdona Ro‘ziyeva <p>In the modern process of globalization, the demand for learning foreign languages is growing among young people. This, of course, does not prevent our native language from showing its influence. That is, it manifests itself on the streets, in work processes, in educational institutions.</p> 2024-04-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Durdona Ro‘ziyeva BUILDING FUTURE INNOVATORS: THE ROLE OF ROBOTICS EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS 2024-04-26T01:41:11+00:00 Maqpal Bimurzayeva <p>This article examines the pivotal role of robotics education in shaping the future innovators of tomorrow within school settings. As technological advancements continue to redefine the landscape of education, robotics emerges as a dynamic tool for fostering creativity, critical thinking, and problem-solving skills among students. By integrating robotics into school curricula, educators can engage students in hands-on learning experiences that bridge theory with practice, empowering them to explore STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) concepts in meaningful ways. Drawing upon theoretical frameworks and empirical evidence, this article elucidates the benefits of robotics education in promoting interdisciplinary learning, enhancing digital literacy, and preparing students for the challenges of the 21st-century workforce. Through a comprehensive exploration of the pedagogical principles, instructional strategies, and practical considerations associated with robotics education, this article offers insights and guidance for educators, policymakers, and stakeholders seeking to foster a culture of innovation and lifelong learning in schools.</p> 2024-04-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Maqpal Bimurzayeva SIGN MOVEMENT IN THE STRUCTURAL-SEMANTIC ANALYSIS OF THE ARTISTIC TEXT 2024-04-25T16:35:41+00:00 Rayhonoy Saidova <p>In literary studies, great attention is paid to structural and semiotic research methods in the analysis of the artistic text and in the study of the essence of the work, their application to the scientific research process.</p> <p>In this article, the semiological system of the artistic text, the infinity of the text, the interrelationships of the signs are highlighted, the movement of the separated signs, denotative and connotative features, paradigmatic, syntagmatic and binary opposition relations of semiotics are analyzed.</p> 2024-04-25T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Rayhonoy Saidova DIRECTING CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES TO MODERN INCLUSION EDUCATION 2024-05-04T06:36:23+00:00 Usmonova Moxiraxon <p>Inclusion education has emerged as a pivotal framework for promoting the integration of children with disabilities into mainstream educational settings, fostering equitable opportunities for learning and social interaction. This article examines the principles and practices of directing children with disabilities to modern inclusion education, highlighting the importance of creating inclusive environments that accommodate diverse learning needs and abilities. Through a comprehensive analysis of inclusive education practices and considerations, this article provides insights into promoting the effective inclusion of children with disabilities in modern educational contexts.</p> 2024-05-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Usmonova Moxiraxon AIR POLLUTION EFFECTS FOR TOURISM INDUSTRY 2024-04-25T16:20:43+00:00 Khayotjon Meliev <p>Air pollution poses a significant threat to the global tourism industry, affecting the health of tourists, tarnishing the image of destinations, and leading to economic losses. This thesis examines the multifaceted impacts of air pollution on tourism, evaluates the responses of various stakeholders, and proposes strategies for sustainable tourism development.</p> 2024-04-25T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Khayotjon Meliev MODERN LINGUISTICS AND SOCIAL LIFE 2024-04-25T16:13:38+00:00 Jahongir Hotamov <p>This article describes the relevance of modern trends in Uzbek linguistics and their role in the life of society.</p> 2024-04-25T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Jahongir Hotamov COMMENTS ON THE DERIVATION OF THE UZBEK LITERARY LANGUAGE 2024-04-25T16:00:28+00:00 Adiba Aminova <p>This article is devoted to the study of formulation problems and derivative problems.</p> 2024-04-25T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Adiba Aminova SOME COMMENTS ABOUT THE PHRYGIA STATE 2024-04-25T15:45:36+00:00 G‘ayrat Xamrayev Diyora Jumaqulova <p>This article focuses on the history, religion, writing, and economics of the Phrygian kingdom, which is rich in information in our exploration of the centuries-old sources of ancient Near Eastern history.</p> 2024-04-25T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 G‘ayrat Xamrayev, Diyora Jumaqulova MODERN TRENDS AND FEATURES OF TOURISM SECTOR DEVELOPMENT IN UZBEKISTAN 2024-04-23T19:37:15+00:00 Umida Sharipova <p>The article examines the growth of the tourism sector, which is determined by a number of factors, including what new opportunities are available for the development of tourism, including investment attraction, infrastructure modernization, the development of cultural tourism and the improvement of business conditions, c-tourism and the impact on the economy.</p> 2024-04-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Umida Sharipova IMPROVING THE TEACHING METHODOLOGY USING INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES IN NUMERICAL PROJECTION 2024-04-23T14:39:19+00:00 Nurlan Tashimov Guli Shomurotova <p>This article highlights the improvement of teaching methods in higher education institutions using information technology in projection with numerical marks.</p> 2024-04-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Nurlan Tashimov , Guli Shomurotova THE ROLE OF MODERN LINGUISTICS IN SOCIAL LIFE 2024-04-23T14:28:02+00:00 Zulxumor Almirzayeva <p>This article provides information about the role of currently developing corpus linguistics, linguocultural studies, sociolinguistics, and psycholinguistics in social life.</p> 2024-04-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Zulxumor Almirzayeva TRANSFORMING ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHING THROUGH TECHNOLOGY: INNOVATIONS IN EDUCATION 2024-04-15T09:40:55+00:00 Umida Usmonova Ezoza Rakhmatova <p>This article explores the transformative impact of technology on English language teaching (ELT) within the realm of education. With the rapid advancement of digital tools and platforms, educators are leveraging innovative technologies to enhance the teaching and learning of English as a second language. From interactive language learning apps to virtual classrooms and AI-driven language assessment tools, technology offers unprecedented opportunities to engage students, personalize learning experiences, and facilitate language acquisition. This study examines key innovations in ELT technology and their implications for pedagogy, learner motivation, and language proficiency outcomes. Through case studies and empirical analysis, it sheds light on the evolving landscape of English language education and the role of technology in shaping its future trajectory.</p> 2024-04-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Umida Usmonova, Ezoza Rakhmatova THE ROLE OF TOURISM IN THE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF UZBEKISTAN (IN THE CASE OF SAMARKAND REGION) 2024-05-16T11:37:28+00:00 Asadbek Teshaboyev T. Ravshanov <p>Tourism plays a significant role in the economic development of Uzbekistan, particularly in regions with rich cultural heritage such as the Samarkand region. This article examines the multifaceted impact of tourism on the economic growth and sustainability of Uzbekistan, with a focus on the case of the Samarkand region. By analyzing key economic indicators, tourism statistics, and policy frameworks, this study sheds light on the contributions of tourism to job creation, infrastructure development, foreign exchange earnings, and community empowerment in the Samarkand region. Furthermore, it explores the challenges and opportunities associated with tourism development, as well as strategies for harnessing the full potential of tourism as a catalyst for inclusive and sustainable economic growth in Uzbekistan.</p> 2024-05-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Asadbek Teshaboyev, T. Ravshanov HISTORICAL ASPECTS OF CHANGES IN THE POLITICAL CONSCIOUSNESS OF YOUTH OF UZBEKISTAN 2024-05-28T09:54:13+00:00 Eleonora Ferdinandovna Yusupova <p>In this article, the author reveals the historical aspects of the change in the political consciousness of young people. It is indicated that the history of the political consciousness of the youth of Uzbekistan is a complex and multifaceted process in which elements of the Soviet past, national revival, economic and political reforms of the period of New Uzbekistan, as well as the influence of globalization and information technology are intertwined.</p> 2024-05-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Eleonora Ferdinandovna Yusupova DEVELOPMENT OF A ROBOTIC ARM PROTOTYPE FOR FENCERS 2024-05-28T08:52:05+00:00 Durdona Bekimmetova Rinat Abrarov <p>This article explores the design and principles of operation of a robotic arm for the sport of fencing. Servo motors are important components of robotics and automation, and harnessing the power of the Raspberry Pi 4 opens up many possibilities for control and automation projects. This article provides an overview of the setup and programming of the robotic adversary handheld device.</p> 2024-05-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Durdona Bekimmetova, Rinat Abrarov ETHNOPEDAGOGY AND ECOLOGICAL CULTURE 2024-05-28T08:43:27+00:00 Gulnara Kamilovna Yuldasheva <p>The article reveals such concepts as “ethnopedagogy”, “ecological culture” and their content and qualities from the aspects of pedagogy, psychology and philosophy, as well as gives examples. In a complex set of problems characterizing the process of environmental education in modern conditions, the correlation of ethnoculture and environmental education, ethnopsychology, ethnopedagogy and the development of environmental culture of the individual stands out for its relevance.</p> 2024-05-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Gulnara Kamilovna Yuldasheva EXPERIMENTAL TESTING OF AN IMPROVED ECCENTRIC BELT DRIVE ON A UXK TRACTOR 2024-05-27T19:56:13+00:00 Muhammadismoil Ismoilov Abror Kasimov <p>The article is devoted to the production of eccentrics with belt elements and without belt elements based on new theoretical calculation books for the rotation of the working bodies of the UXK cotton ginning machine (pile drum, saw drum, etc.). Manufactured eccentrics were tested in a laboratory method and conclusions were made that they can be used in production.</p> 2024-05-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Muhammadismoil Ismoilov , Abror Kasimov THE HARMONY OF EDUCATION AND UPBRINGING IN THE PROCESS OF IMPARTING KNOWLEDGE TO STUDENTS 2024-05-27T19:46:14+00:00 Farangizbegim Muhammadjonova <p>Science, education and training are the power that makes the nation great and the country powerful, which is the cornerstone of development.</p> 2024-05-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Farangizbegim Muhammadjonova ASSESSING THE NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF MEDICAL STUDENTS 2024-05-27T03:44:24+00:00 I.O. Otajonov S.A. Tolibjonova <p>The nutritional status of medical students is a critical factor in their academic performance and overall health. This study aims to assess and analyze the quality of nutrition among students at the Tashkent Medical Academy. Research by scientists at the University of Michigan has demonstrated that a healthy diet significantly impacts students' learning effectiveness and health. Students who consume high-quality breakfasts rich in fruits, vegetables, and dairy products exhibit better learning rates. Conversely, prolonged hunger or consumption of poor-quality foods leads to difficulties in learning, concentration, and behavioral issues. Our study seeks to explore these findings within the context of the Tashkent Medical Academy, providing insights into the current state of student nutrition and its effects on their academic and health outcomes.</p> 2024-05-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 I.O. Otajonov, S.A. Tolibjonova IMPORTANCE OF MARKETING IN AGRICULTURE 2024-05-24T02:01:03+00:00 Abdikarimova Zilola <p>This article highlights the importance of marketing in agriculture, agromarketing subjects, specific characteristics of agromarketing, the main indicators of agriculture in the Republic of Uzbekistan.</p> 2024-05-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Abdikarimova Zilola IMPROVING THE ENERGY EFFICIENCY OF THE TGMP-114S STEAM BOILER DUE TO BURNING IN THE FORM OF OIL-WATER MIXED EMULSION 2024-05-21T19:48:20+00:00 Djabborov Baxtiyor Abduvaliyev Abbosxon Normuminov Jahongir Badalova Dildora <p>This article investigates the enhancement of energy efficiency in the TGMP-114S steam boiler through the utilization of oil-water mixed emulsion as a combustion fuel. The study explores the combustion characteristics, thermal performance, and emissions profile of the boiler when operated with the emulsified fuel. Experimental results demonstrate notable improvements in energy efficiency, highlighting the potential of oil-water emulsion as a sustainable solution for optimizing boiler performance. The findings contribute to the advancement of energy-efficient technologies in steam boiler applications, with implications for reducing fuel consumption and environmental impact.</p> 2024-05-21T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Djabborov Baxtiyor, Abduvaliyev Abbosxon, Normuminov Jahongir, Badalova Dildora TABUOS AND EUPHEMISMS 2024-04-05T20:38:29+00:00 Nurlan Mingbaev Khairulla Ibragimov <p>This article discusses the role and characteristics of taboos and euphemisms used in colloquial speech, studies and classification of euphemisms in Uzbek linguistics.</p> 2024-04-05T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Nurlan Mingbaev , Khairulla Ibragimov MODERN TEACHING METHODS IN TEACHING THE TOPIC OF NUMERICAL EXPRESSIONS IN ELEMENTARY GRADES 2024-05-13T18:37:57+00:00 Kuttiboyeva Aygul <p>This article examines modern teaching methods for instructing elementary grade students on the topic of numerical expressions. Numerical expressions serve as foundational concepts in mathematics education, providing students with essential skills for problem-solving and algebraic reasoning. By leveraging innovative pedagogical approaches, educators can enhance student engagement, comprehension, and retention of numerical expression concepts. This article explores various teaching strategies, including hands-on activities, visual representations, technology integration, and differentiated instruction, to cater to diverse learning styles and abilities. Additionally, it discusses the importance of fostering conceptual understanding, procedural fluency, and mathematical communication in numerical expression instruction. By embracing modern teaching methods, educators can empower elementary students to develop a deeper understanding of numerical expressions and lay a strong foundation for future mathematical success.</p> 2024-05-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Kuttiboyeva Aygul IMPORTANCE OF NON-INTEREST INCOME IN COMMERCIAL BANKS AND WAYS OF THEIR DEVELOPMENT 2024-05-09T15:21:36+00:00 Lutpiddinov Rustamjon <p>This research paper examines the important role of non-interest income in commercial banks and explores various strategies for its development. Non-interest income, which includes fees, commissions and other revenue streams beyond traditional interest-based lending, is increasingly important to maintaining profitability and mitigating risks in modern banking. By diversifying sources of income, banks can increase financial stability, adapt to emerging market dynamics and ensure long-term growth. This article examines the importance of non-interest income, identifies the main drivers of its growth, and suggests practical strategies for improving it in the commercial banking sector.</p> 2024-05-09T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Lutpiddinov Rustamjon ANALYSIS OF THE MAIN FACTORS AFFECTING THE ALLOCATION OF RETAIL LOANS: THE PRACTICE OF EVALUATING THE SCORING PROCESS 2024-05-09T12:58:16+00:00 Ibodov Alisher <p>Retail lending is a critical aspect of banking operations and affects financial stability and economic growth. The scoring process plays an important role in determining loan approval as it assesses the creditworthiness of applicants. This article provides a comprehensive analysis of the key factors influencing retail credit distribution, with a focus on evaluating the scoring process. By examining various factors such as economic conditions, borrower characteristics, and regulatory frameworks, this study aims to provide insights into optimizing the retail lending process and mitigating credit risks.</p> 2024-05-09T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Ibodov Alisher THE MAIN FACTORS AFFECTING THE ALLOCATION OF RETAIL LOANS 2024-05-09T12:42:32+00:00 Ibodov Alisher <p>Retail lending, the backbone of modern banking, plays a critical role in economic growth and financial inclusion. This article takes a comprehensive look at the key factors affecting the distribution of retail loans. Drawing on existing literature, empirical studies, and theoretical frameworks, we examine the multifaceted determinants that shape lending decisions by financial institutions. By illuminating these factors, this review contributes to a deeper understanding of the dynamics of retail credit distribution and provides insights for policymakers, regulators and practitioners seeking to improve access to credit and reduce risks in retail lending markets.</p> 2024-05-09T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Ibodov Alisher THE IMPACT OF DIGITAL BANKING SERVICES ON THE PERFORMANCE OF COMMERCIAL BANKS 2024-05-09T12:24:30+00:00 Alimardonova Durdona <p>With the rapid development of technology, the banking industry has undergone significant changes, primarily due to the widespread use of digital banking services. This article focuses on a comprehensive analysis of the impact of digital banking services on the operations of commercial banks. By synthesizing existing literature and empirical evidence, this study examines the multifaceted effects of digital banking adoption on various indicators such as profitability, operational efficiency, customer satisfaction, and risk management. In addition, the paper discusses the challenges and opportunities associated with the integration of digital banking services and provides insights for future research directions in this emerging field.</p> 2024-05-09T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Alimardonova Durdona THE IMPACT OF DIGITAL BANKING SERVICES ON THE OPERATIONS OF COMMERCIAL BANKS: A COMPREHENSIVE ANALYSIS 2024-05-09T12:15:53+00:00 Alimardonova Durdona <p>With the rapid development of technology, digital banking services have become widespread in the financial industry, changing the way customers interact with banks and conduct financial transactions. This study provides a comprehensive analysis of the impact of digital banking services on the performance of commercial banks. By synthesizing existing literature and empirical evidence, this paper examines the various dimensions of digital banking services, including online banking, mobile banking, digital payment systems and artificial intelligence applications, and their key performance indicators such as profitability, efficiency, customer studies the effect. satisfaction and risk management. The findings show that while digital banking offers opportunities to reduce costs, generate revenue, and improve customer experience, they also pose challenges related to cybersecurity, regulatory compliance, and the digital divide. This article provides insights into the strategic use of digital banking by commercial banks to improve their operations in a more digitized environment.</p> 2024-05-09T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Alimardonova Durdona SIMULАTIОN MОDELING ОF THE URBАN TRАNSPОRT SYSTEM TАKEN INTО АCCОUNT ОF CHАNGES IN PАSSENGER FLОW 2024-05-07T11:24:01+00:00 Yunusov Jamshidbek <p>Simulation modeling has become an essential tool for understanding and optimizing urban transport systems, particularly in the context of evolving passenger flow dynamics. This article presents a simulation modeling approach aimed at capturing changes in passenger flow within the urban transport system. By integrating various data sources and modeling techniques, the proposed approach enables the analysis of passenger behavior, network congestion, and system performance under different scenarios and conditions. The article discusses key elements of the simulation model, including network representation, demand modeling, traffic assignment algorithms, and performance evaluation metrics. Furthermore, case studies illustrate the application of the simulation model to assess the impact of infrastructure changes, policy interventions, and emerging transportation technologies on passenger flow dynamics and system efficiency. Through a comprehensive analysis of simulation modeling in urban transport, this article offers insights into addressing challenges and opportunities for sustainable and resilient urban mobility.</p> 2024-05-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Yunusov Jamshidbek